## Installing packages

In today’s practical we’ll learn how to extend the functionality of R by using packages and we’ll learn how to use functions in R.

### Installing packages from CRAN

We’ll start off with a refresher on installing packages by installing a package called here. The here package will give you access to a function called here(). Like most of the packages that we’ll be working with, this package is on the CRAN.

To install packages on the CRAN we’ll use a function called install.packages(). The install.packages() function only takes one input. This input is a string of letters giving the package name.

To install the here package you’d run the following command:

install.packages("here")

Where do you run this command?
When you want to run commands to install R packages you run them in the Console pane. Run the command above by typing it into the Console.

If a dialogue box like the one below pops up then just click No

If you’re able to install the package successfully then you should see something like the output below.

> install.packages("here")
trying URL 'https://cran.rstudio.com/bin/macosx/contrib/4.0/here_0.1.tgz'
Content type 'application/x-gzip' length 18008 bytes (17 KB)
==================================================

/var/folders/71/svr64pcx1mn0rq9141lk4dgw001d5z/T//Rtmp03fU6r/downloaded_packages

When installing new packages the easiest way to check whether the package has been installed correctly is to try loading it.

For example, if you’ve just tried to install a package called nonpackage, then you can check whether it is installed correctly by loading it with the library() function. If you don’t get an error message then everything is OK! However, if you get an error message like the one below, then that means the package hasn’t been installed correctly.

> library(nonpackage)
Error in library("nonpackage") : there is no package called ‘nonpackage’

You can also spot installation errors by looking at the messages at the end of the installation process.

For example, if a package doesn’t install because you’ve typed the package name in incorrectly then you’ll see a message telling you the package is not available:

> install.packages("doesnotexist")
Warning message:
package ‘doesnotexist’ is not available (for R version 4.0.2)

If you’ve typed the name in correctly by the installation has failed for some other reasons then you’ll see a message telling you that the installation had a non-zero exit status:

The downloaded source packages are in
Warning message:
In install.packages("rJava") :
installation of package ‘rJava’ had non-zero exit status

### Installing not on the CRAN

A minority of packages that we’ll be using are not on the CRAN. To install these packages we’ll use a function from the remotes package called remotes::install_url() or remotes::install_github().

The remotes::install_url() function just takes one input. This is a letter string that is a URL (that is, a web address starting with http:// or https://).

The remotes::install_github() function also takes one input. This is a litter string that will be the location of a GitHub repository. It’s input will look something like this: SussexPsychMethods/paas. Notice that it doesn’t have any http:// or https:// at the start. You’ll almost always be told by the package developer whether you should use install_url or install_github.

### Updating packages

Sometimes the people that make R packages will update them. This might be because they want to correct errors in them or because they’ve added some new functionality. Updating packages is just as easy as installing them. To update a package all you need to do is run the install command again.

For example, if you used the following command to install a package:

install.packages("here")

You’d use the exact same command to update it.

And if you used the following command to install a package:

remotes::install_url(url = "https://paas.netlify.app/packages/paas.zip")

You’d also use the exact same command to update it.

## Using packages and functions

Once you’ve installed a package you can start using the functions that it brings with it. To do this, you should first load the package using the library() function. The library() function just takes one input. This is a letter string with the name of the package.

For example, the command below would load the here package.

library("here")

When you want to use a function from a package, you should put the package name before the function name. For example, if I wanted to use the install_url() function from the remotes package I would write:

remotes::install_url(url = ...)

## Getting help on functions

The easiest way to get help on a function is to use the ?. To get help, you just put a ? before the function call. Remember, don’t forget the ()!

To get help on the here() function from the here package, you’d write the following at the console

?here::here()

Now that you’ve had a bit of a refresher on functions and packages we’ll put that knowledge to use to solve the following tasks.

First up, create a new RMarkdown (.Rmd) file and save it in the rdocs folder of your current project folder. You’ll be writing your solutions into this file. You can give it whatever name you want.

Next, clear out the .Rmd file by deleting everything below the first code chunk (the setup chunk).

We’ll be using three packages for today’s tasks. Two packages will be installed from CRAN and the third will be a non-CRAN package.

1. First install the here package and the knitr package from CRAN.

2. Next install the non-CRAN package called learnfun from the URL https://paas.netlify.app/packages/learnfun.zip

Make sure to install these packages by running the commands in the correct way.

The commands should be run at the console.

install.packages("here")
install.packages("knitr")
remotes::install_url(url = "https://paas.netlify.app/packages/learnfun.zip")
install.packages("here")
install.packages("knitr")
remotes::install_url(url = "https://paas.netlify.app/packages/learnfun.zip")

We’ll be using the here, the knitr, and the learnfun packages, so add some code to the setup chunk of your .Rmd file so that these packages will be loaded whenever you knit the document.

use the library() function to load a package.

Put this code in the very first code chunk (the setup chunk).

library("knitr")
library("here")
library("learnfun")

Now create a new code chunk in your .Rmd file.

Copy the code below and paste it into the code chunk

rnorm(n = 100, mean = 0, sd = 1)

This function simply generates 100 random numbers from the normal distribution with a mean ($$\mu$$) of 0 and a standard deviation ($$\sigma$$) of 1.

Edit the line of code so that the output is assigned to a variable called my_random_numbers.

You just need to add the object name (my_random_numbers) and the assignment arrow (<-) to the start of the line before the rnorm() function is called.

my_random_numbers <- rnorm(n = 100, mean = 0, sd = 1)

Next we’ll use the object we created in the previous step (my_random_numbers) as the input to the mean() function.

If you’re unsure of how to use a function then you can ask R for help. To do this, you just use a ? before the function name and then call the function without any inputs. Because this is just a one-off command you’d type it at the console. (Putting it in the .Rmd would mean asking for help every time you knit your file!)

For example, if you wanted help about the mean() function, then you’d type the following into the console

?mean()

Now try accessing the help on the mean function, and see where it appears in your help pane.

Use the mean() function to work out the mean of the vector of numbers you just created. Add this code to the code chunk.

mean(x = my_random_numbers)

Now that you know how to get help, try accessing the help for the rankitems function from the learnfun package.

?learnfun::rankitems()

After you’ve read the help on the rankitems function, add a new code chunk to your .Rmd file and use the rankitems function to do something sensible with it.

learnfun::rankitems(fav = "Pizza",
second = "Sushi",
hated = "Coriander")

Next we will try and include an image into our .Rmd file. We will do this in a few steps.

Either save the image directly into the images sub-folder of you project or move it from your downloads folder to the images sub-folder of your project.

If you’re having trouble downloading the file and then uploading to RStudio cloud then you can try using the download.file() function. First create your images folder, and then run the following command: download.file(url = "https://paas.netlify.app/assets/rollercoaster.png", destfile = "/images/rollercoaster.png")

For people using chromebooks/the cloud version of R it might be easier for them to use the download.file() function.

download.file(url = "https://paas.netlify.app/assets/rollercoaster.png", destfile = "/images/rollercoaster.png")

Create a new code chunk. In this code chunk use the here::here() function to give the directions to the image file that you’ve just downloaded. Make sure you assign the directions to an object called imagefile

You’ll write the directions to the file in the same way you did in Week 3, in the section Finding the path to a file.

imagefile <- here::here("images/rollercoaster.png")

In the same code chunk as before, use the knitr::include_graphics() function to include the image in your document. Use the imagefile object as the input for the include_graphics function.

imagefile <- here::here("images/rollercoaster.png")
knitr::include_graphics(path = imagefile)

An important skill to learn is how to diagnose problems with your code. Create a new code chunk in your .Rmd file and insert the code below into the code chunk.

a_number <- 10
learnfun::number_and_word(number = a_number, word = a_word)

Now try running the code chunk. You’ll notice that it produces an error. Make some changes to the code chunk so that it produces the following output.

The number is  10  and the word is  cat

Don’t edit the line that starts with learnfun::

a_number <- 10
a_word <- "cat"
learnfun::number_and_word(number = a_number, word = a_word)

I hope the last one was easy, so we’ll make it a little more complicated now.

Create a new code chunk and copy the code below into the code chunk. Take a look at the comments in the code to give you an idea of what different bits of the code are doing.

# Create an object with an animal name
animal <- "Elephant"

# Create an object with a location
lives_in <- "Africa"

# Create an object with an age
age <- "70"

# get information about an animal
learnfun::animal_info(name = animl, where = lives_in, lifespan = age)

This code will produce an error (or two), so you’ll have to fix it so that it works correctly. When it works correctly it should print out the following message

Elephant  live in  Africa and live for  70  years

# A tibble: 1 x 4
name     where  lifespan_years lifespan_months
<chr>    <chr>           <dbl>           <dbl>
1 Elephant Africa             70             770
# Create an object with an animal name
animal <- "Elephant"

# Create an object with a location
lives_in <- "Africa"

# Create an object with an age
age <- 70 # should be a number

# get information about an animal
learnfun::animal_info(name = animal,  # spelling error
where = lives_in,
lifespan = age)

The learnfun::animal_info() function prints out a message, but it also outputs a new object (a tibble). But only if you assign the output to an object.

Edit the code chunk so that the output of the learnfun::animal_info() function is assigned to an object called elephant_info.

elephant_info <- learnfun::animal_info(name = animal, where = lives_in, lifespan = age)

Now take a look at the elephant_info object. You’ll notice that it has two columns that have numbers in them. One is called lifespan_years and the other is called lifespan_months.
Write some code to check whether the value in lifespan_months is 12 times the values in lifespan_years. Essentially, just check whether the conversion from life span in years to life span in months has been done correctly!
You’ll need to use the logical operators (one of ==, !=, >, <, >=, <=, etc)
Remember to use the $ to select a column of a tibble. To check whether one object/value is equal to another you’d use ==. elephant_info$lifespan_years * 12 == elephant_info$lifespan_months # or elephant_info$lifespan_months / 12 == elephant_info\$lifespan_years